[JPL] The Death of High Fidelity

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Fri Dec 28 10:56:13 EST 2007



The Death of High Fidelity
In the age of MP3s, sound quality is worse than ever


Posted Dec 26, 2007 1:27 PM

David Bendeth, a producer who works with rock bands like Hawthorne Heights
and Paramore, knows that the albums he makes are often played through tiny
computer speakers by fans who are busy surfing the Internet. So he's not
surprised when record labels ask the mastering engineers who work on his CDs
to crank up the sound levels so high that even the soft parts sound loud.
Over the past decade and a half, a revolution in recording technology has
changed the way albums are produced, mixed and mastered ‹ almost always for
the worse. "They make it loud to get [listeners'] attention," Bendeth says.
Engineers do that by applying dynamic range compression, which reduces the
difference between the loudest and softest sounds in a song. Like many of
his peers, Bendeth believes that relying too much on this effect can obscure
sonic detail, rob music of its emotional power and leave listeners with what
engineers call ear fatigue. "I think most everything is mastered a little
too loud," Bendeth says. "The industry decided that it's a volume contest."

Producers and engineers call this "the loudness war," and it has changed the
way almost every new pop and rock album sounds. But volume isn't the only
issue. Computer programs like Pro Tools, which let audio engineers
manipulate sound the way a word processor edits text, make musicians sound
unnaturally perfect. And today's listeners consume an increasing amount of
music on MP3, which eliminates much of the data from the original CD file
and can leave music sounding tinny or hollow. "With all the technical
innovation, music sounds worse," says Steely Dan's Donald Fagen, who has
made what are considered some of the best-sounding records of all time. "God
is in the details. But there are no details anymore."

The idea that engineers make albums louder might seem strange: Isn't volume
controlled by that knob on the stereo? Yes, but every setting on that dial
delivers a range of loudness, from a hushed vocal to a kick drum ‹ and
pushing sounds toward the top of that range makes music seem louder. It's
the same technique used to make television commercials stand out from shows.
And it does grab listeners' attention ‹ but at a price. Last year, Bob Dylan
told Rolling Stone that modern albums "have sound all over them. There's no
definition of nothing, no vocal, no nothing, just like ‹ static."

In 2004, Jeff Buckley's mom, Mary Guibert, listened to the original
three-quarter-inch tape of her son's recordings as she was preparing the
tenth-anniversary reissue of Grace. "We were hearing instruments you've
never heard on that album, like finger cymbals and the sound of viola
strings being plucked," she remembers. "It blew me away because it was
exactly what he heard in the studio."

To Guibert's disappointment, the remastered 2004 version failed to capture
these details. So last year, when Guibert assembled the best-of collection
So Real: Songs From Jeff Buckley, she insisted on an independent A&R
consultant to oversee the reissue process and a mastering engineer who would
reproduce the sound Buckley made in the studio. "You can hear the distinct
instruments and the sound of the room," she says of the new release.
"Compression smudges things together."

Too much compression can be heard as musical clutter; on the Arctic Monkeys'
debut, the band never seems to pause to catch its breath. By maintaining
constant intensity, the album flattens out the emotional peaks that usually
stand out in a song. "You lose the power of the chorus, because it's not
louder than the verses," Bendeth says. "You lose emotion."

The inner ear automatically compresses blasts of high volume to protect
itself, so we associate compression with loudness, says Daniel Levitin, a
professor of music and neuroscience at McGill University and author of This
Is Your Brain on Music: The Science of a Human Obsession. Human brains have
evolved to pay particular attention to loud noises, so compressed sounds
initially seem more exciting. But the effect doesn't last. "The excitement
in music comes from variation in rhythm, timbre, pitch and loudness,"
Levitin says. "If you hold one of those constant, it can seem monotonous."
After a few minutes, research shows, constant loudness grows fatiguing to
the brain. Though few listeners realize this consciously, many feel an urge
to skip to another song.

"If you limit range, it's just an assault on the body," says Tom Coyne, a
mastering engineer who has worked with Mary J. Blige and Nas. "When you're
fifteen, it's the greatest thing ‹ you're being hammered. But do you want
that on a whole album?"

To an average listener, a wide dynamic range creates a sense of spaciousness
and makes it easier to pick out individual instruments ‹ as you can hear on
recent albums such as Dylan's Modern Times and Norah Jones' Not Too Late.
"When people have the courage and the vision to do a record that way, it
sets them apart," says Joe Boyd, who produced albums by Richard Thompson and
R.E.M.'s Fables of the Reconstruction. "It sounds warm, it sounds
three-dimensional, it sounds different. Analog sound to me is more
emotionally affecting."

Want to continue the sound quality conversation? Click here to discuss this
story in the comments section of our Rock & Roll Daily Blog.

Rock and pop producers have always used compression to balance the sounds of
different instruments and to make music sound more exciting, and radio
stations apply compression for technical reasons. In the days of vinyl rec-
ords, there was a physical limit to how high the bass levels could go before
the needle skipped a groove. CDs can handle higher levels of loudness,
although they, too, have a limit that engineers call "digital zero dB,"
above which sounds begin to distort. Pop albums rarely got close to the
zero-dB mark until the mid-1990s, when digital compressors and limiters,
which cut off the peaks of sound waves, made it easier to manipulate
loudness levels. Intensely compressed albums like Oasis' 1995 (What's the
Story) Morning Glory? set a new bar for loudness; the songs were well-suited
for bars, cars and other noisy environments. "In the Seventies and Eighties,
you were expected to pay attention," says Matt Serletic, the former chief
executive of Virgin Records USA, who also produced albums by Matchbox Twenty
and Collective Soul. "Modern music should be able to get your attention."
Adds Rob Cavallo, who produced Green Day's American Idiot and My Chemical
Romance's The Black Parade, "It's a style that started post-grunge, to get
that intensity. The idea was to slam someone's face against the wall. You
can set your CD to stun."

It's not just new music that's too loud. Many remastered recordings suffer
the same problem as engineers apply compression to bring them into line with
modern tastes. The new Led Zeppelin collection, Mothership, is louder than
the band's original albums, and Bendeth, who mixed Elvis Presley's 30 #1
Hits, says that the album was mastered too loud for his taste. "A lot of
audiophiles hate that record," he says, "but people can play it in the car
and it's competitive with the new Foo Fighters record."

Just as cds supplanted vinyl and cassettes, MP3 and other digital-music
formats are quickly replacing CDs as the most popular way to listen to
music. That means more conven- ience but worse sound. To create an MP3, a
computer samples the music on a CD and compresses it into a smaller file by
excluding the musical information that the human ear is less likely to
notice. Much of the information left out is at the very high and low ends,
which is why some MP3s sound flat. Cavallo says that MP3s don't reproduce
reverb well, and the lack of high-end detail makes them sound brittle.
Without enough low end, he says, "you don't get the punch anymore. It
decreases the punch of the kick drum and how the speaker gets pushed when
the guitarist plays a power chord."

But not all digital-music files are created equal. Levitin says that most
people find MP3s ripped at a rate above 224 kbps virtually indistinguishable
from CDs. (iTunes sells music as either 128 or 256 kbps AAC files ‹ AAC is
slightly superior to MP3 at an equivalent bit rate. Amazon sells MP3s at 256
kbps.) Still, "it's like going to the Louvre and instead of the Mona Lisa
there's a 10-megapixel image of it," he says. "I always want to listen to
music the way the artists wanted me to hear it. I wouldn't look at a
Kandinsky painting with sunglasses on."

Producers also now alter the way they mix albums to compensate for the
limitations of MP3 sound. "You have to be aware of how people will hear
music, and pretty much everyone is listening to MP3," says producer Butch
Vig, a member of Garbage and the producer of Nirvana's Never- mind. "Some of
the effects get lost. So you sometimes have to over-exaggerate things."
Other producers believe that intensely compressed CDs make for better MP3s,
since the loudness of the music will compensate for the flatness of the
digital format.

As technological shifts have changed the way sounds are recorded, they have
encouraged an artificial perfection in music itself. Analog tape has been
replaced in most studios by Pro Tools, making edits that once required
splicing tape together easily done with the click of a mouse. Programs like
Auto-Tune can make weak singers sound pitch-perfect, and Beat Detective does
the same thing for wobbly drummers.

"You can make anyone sound professional," says Mitchell Froom, a producer
who's worked with Elvis Costello and Los Lobos, among others. "But the
problem is that you have something that's professional, but it's not
distinctive. I was talking to a session drummer, and I said, 'When's the
last time you could tell who the drummer is?' You can tell Keith Moon or
John Bonham, but now they all sound the same."

So is music doomed to keep sounding worse? Awareness of the problem is
growing. The South by Southwest music festival recently featured a panel
titled "Why Does Today's Music Sound Like Shit?" In August, a group of
producers and engineers founded an organization called Turn Me Up!, which
proposes to put stickers on CDs that meet high sonic standards.

But even most CD listeners have lost interest in high-end stereos as
surround-sound home theater systems have become more popular, and
superior-quality disc formats like DVD-Audio and SACD flopped. Bendeth and
other producers worry that young listeners have grown so used to dynamically
compressed music and the thin sound of MP3s that the battle has already been
lost. "CDs sound better, but no one's buying them," he says. "The age of the
audiophile is over."

(On the next page: Top artists and producers sound off on the sound wars.
Plus: Check out waveforms to see what dynamic compression looks like, and

Want to continue the sound quality conversation? Click here to discuss this
story in the comments section of our Rock & Roll Daily Blog.

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